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Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus – or Justinian for short, was born sometime after 450 AD, as a member of a lower caste peasant family in the village of Tauresium, in the Roman province of Dardania. In 526 Theodoric died, leaving Eutharic's ten-year-old son Athalaric as heir to the throne. As a result, Justinian was well educated in jurisprudence, theology and Roman history. Justinian hoped to restore the social and economic well-being of Italy by a series of measures, the Pragmatic Sanction of 554. However, Justin controlled a smaller, but higher quality group of soldiers, and used the money to buy support for himself. After Justin died, Justinian succeeded him as sole emperor. Justinian was a Latin-speaking Illyrian and was born of peasant stock. The country was so ravaged by war that any return to normal life proved impossible during Justinian’s lifetime, and only three years after his death part of the country was lost to the Lombard invaders. [16], His wife became his empress consort under the name Euphemia. [18] According to John Malalas, the praepositus sacri cubiculi (grand chamberlain), Amantius, had intended to have Theocritus, commander of an elite guard unit, elected to the throne. [16] His brother Flavius Paulus had served as consul in 496. Emperor Justinian I was a master legislator. Justin was also a peasant, but had carefully worked up through the ranks, becoming an imperial guard. When Leo II died later that year, Zeno became emperor. In foreign affairs he used religion as an instrument of state. Thereafter he adopted a more pragmatic approach. Kaleb I of Aksum was probably encouraged to aggressively enlarge his empire by Justin. Justinianus was a Roman name that he took from his uncle, the emperor Justin I, to whom he owed his advancement. [34][35][36], During his uncle's reign Justinian successively occupied the positions of comes domesticorum, commander of the imperial guard, patrician, and, in 521, consul. 6. Who did Justinian marry? "[22] This was a very public and widespread restatement of the Empire as a Christian state. The Codex Justinianus, or Code of Justinian, was a legal code. [17] This extensive family included several viable candidates for the throne. In 541 he invaded Lazica in the north. Totila was defeated by superior numbers and strategy and was mortally wounded at the battle of Busta Gallorum. Under Justinian I, the empire gained territory and would reach the peak of its power and wealth. Two important facets of Justinian’s foreign policy were his continuation of the age-old struggle with Persia and his attempt to regain the former Roman provinces in the West from the control of barbarian invaders. Both Amantius and Theocritus were executed nine days after the election. Omissions? The rebuilding of the Great Church and many other buildings was overseen by Ephraim, the comes Orientis, whose efforts saw him replace Euphrasius as the Chalcedonian Patriarch of Antioch. Justin's Second Apology was written soon after Marcus Aurelius became emperor in 161. He also sponsored the Codex Justinianus (Code of Justinian) and directed the construction of several new cathedrals, including the Hagia Sophia. The fleet of about 500 vessels set out with 92 warships. [13][14] During this period he married Lupicina; no surviving children are recorded from this marriage. Caracalla and Fulvia had a daughter in this marriage, which ended abruptly when in 205 Plautianus was accused, convicted of treas… Contemporary chronicler John Malalas reported that Byzantine merchants were robbed and killed by the Jewish King of the south Arabian Kingdom of Himyar, causing Kaleb to claim, "You have acted badly because you have killed merchants of the Christian Romans, which is a loss both to myself and my kingdom.

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